Italy – A journey to discover the dialectal terms used to define carriages in 19th century Milan

Here you are all the dialectal terms used in 19th century Milan to identify the different types of carriages…. Taken from the Milan and Italian style vocabulary of Francesco Cherubini of 1839. Bagher … kind of a little gig that has a case with a mobile bellows cover, without doors nor front sides, supported on springs, in two or more places, mostly without a box; it has four-wheeled chariot and a large turn – Bagher is a corruption of the German Wagen. Discover now all our trips, tours, holidays and horse trekking in Italy. Barchetta …. A kind of carriage that has a four-place case, with a concave bottom, doors, front sides, a mobile apron (flashing) that rises to cover the front seat, and when raised, it goes against the snake bar, thus supporting those who sit in the carriage by that band; it is supported on springs, has a snake base ( casson ), and is equipped with a half bellows and a closet on the back that we call borlon. It has a tailed chariot, with four wheels, and half-vaulted or large-vaulted according to the species of the tail, that is straight or with goosenecks. Barchettòn … .. Carriage with tailed and four-wheeled wagon, which has a four-place case, with an oval bottom or hull on the passage of the simple bottom of a boat, it is equipped with a half bellows and apron (flashing) similar to the boat, but it is greater than that. Bastardella ……. Carriage with square case with four stable places, with glasses and jalousies and sunshades for the front and sides, with stable snake box, on the springs, and covered with wood covered with leather, solid and able to withstand any bad weather. It has a tail wagon and four wheels. There is also some Bastardella with an oval case that we call Bastardella a Bombè. Bastardellina ………. Carriage similar in general to the previous one, but it is different because it has a smaller case, and on the inside front of the case, instead of a stable seat at two places, it has a hinged bottom that rises or lowers as desired. Bastardellon … .. Carriage similar to the Bastardella, but it is bigger, and without the sides in front. Batar or Batard …… ..synonym of Bastardella. Berlina…… It takes its name from Berlin, where it was invented, and it is almost similar to the so-called Caroccia de quater. The French also know the Allemande, the Berlina de Campagne. Biga… .. Two-wheeled chariot as used by the Greeks and Romans of the ancient centuries, with an oval box which can be entered from the back where it is all open as a pulpit, uncovered, without buttocks, with short rudder, and led by two horses. Under the name of Biga we also confuse the Quadriga and the Sestiga , the latter of which we have an exemplary public under our eyes in the Sestiga of Peace that overlooks the Arco del Sempione. From the Latin Bigae. Birbìn and Birbinèt ……. See in Carettin. Birocc ……. Biroccio or Cesta, see the entry and add that this carriage is mostly half uncovered, but sometimes it has a little mantle in front of it. Biroccin ……. Similar to the previous one with smaller dimensions. Bombè … … a kind of carriage with covered box, four places, with front doors and sides, on springs, almost completely round, and with four-wheeled tailed wagon; so called Bombè in French. Brancal …… little armchair; Travel gig with a very long and massive case, with coarse wooden bellows, without doors or front sides, with two places, with stable wooden apron and with two-wheeled wagon and two poles. French people call it Brancard, because it has the case supported by two long very sprung cignons. Brisca ……. A carriage with four-wheeled tail wagon, with four-place wagon covered with half bellows, with hatches, and straight on the springs, which has a flat bottom and sides fashioned from outside, never in a perpendicular line, but nevertheless a) or to S; it also has that same apron (scossalinna) and that closet from the back (borlon) with which I said the Barchetta was already equipped. It has the name from the English Brisk (vispo) or from the Nordic Briwska . Brischètta with smaller dimensions; Brischettòn or Briscòn with larger dimensions. carriages in 19th century Milan Cacciadòra ……. Mostly hunting wood species with crate on springs, with many places, and with tailed chariot and four-wheeled springs. Cacciadorina is similiar but with smaller dimensions. Carrettella ……… a kind of wood that has the “cassino” in two places, small door, rear sides with windows, bottom for the front and fixed wooden bellows. It has a tail and four-wheeled chariot; many people also call the Cariagginna with the same name. Carettìn ……. the Birba . Carriage mostly used in the countryside, with a box covered by a mobile bellows, with four places, with doors and with narrow and very long front half sides (sciancraa), with a box or base of snake and often that closet from the back that we say Borlon, straight on springs, and with four-wheeled carriage. A few years ago it was said Birbin or Birbinett if it was small. Caretin a la franzesa ……. kind of Birba similar to the previous one, but gentler, more adorned, and with the front sides longer and less narrow. Caretin a la vitura …… a kind of Birba almost similar to the Barchetta, but with more clumsy shapes, with a straight chest on the shafts, and with a shoulder (spalletta) at the sides and in front. Cariagginna …… . It is a kind of four-wheeled chariot with a long rack or corba caisson on which rests the box or shell in several places, and without bellows. Caroccetta, caroccin, caroccia or carriage also known as Caroccia integra or Caroccia de quatter . Carrozza, cocchio….  It has a shell with a stable cover, doors and front sides, it is supported by springs or gears and four places; it has a four-wheeled chariot, sometimes with a tail, sometimes square and with poles. Caròccia de cort …… . Court carriage. Muta Caròccia de galla….  Carriage of cirimonia. Caroccin or Carozzin or Caroccetta or Carrozzètta in general … little carriot. Càrr (in Milan-style càr) a four-wheeled vehicle for transporting goods and merchandise. Various kinds of wagons are: among the peasants the Carr, the Barozza and the Volantin ; among the militaries the Carriag and the Forgon ; among the laborers the Carretta, the Carrettin, and the Carretton ; among the merchants, the Carrettella, the Carriagginna, the Bara and Basterna . Between the Carr and Barozza there are these main differences: the Carr has the volticella, wide four-wheeled bed, the Barozza has not the volticella, but it has the rudder that goes from the top of the car, called Forca, and has a narrow bed and only two wheels. Carocciòn or Carozzòn …. Cocchione. In the post office it means especially that great carriage which serves as a Velocifero. Carrocion del peccàa ……. Cittadina…. . a kind of carriage with a flat shell and two places, with stable bellows, doors, serpent attached to the shell, without front sides, with mudguards for the front and sides, straight on the springs, and with a four-wheeled and large-vaulted chariot. Còmod… . Name used in the common language to indicate an andante carriage in general, provided it is covered, with four places and with a four-wheeled carriage. Coppè, the cuppè ……… . A type of carriage that has a cassino with a stable cover and doors; it has no front sides, it is straight on the springs, and it has a four-wheeled carriage. It corresponds to the so-called Berlingot or to the French Berline Coupèe , from which the Italian name also originated. Corèra or Legn a la corèra … .. courier wood .. Diligènza … .. carriage with shell to several different places by numbers that during the day at fixed hours is transporting from country to country, even stationaries, travelers, goods and money. It has a solid and stable lid, has a grabbed shape, often has several doors, stands on the grinding wheels and gears, and has a straight-tailed carriage with four wheels. The place of snake or box has several places covered by a fixed bellows, and often has on the back that addition that we call Baltreschin , of which you can see earlier in Velozifer. It was named after the diligence with which it travels through the post office. Dormoeùs … … Armchair, carriage that has a round box, with a stable cover, in two places, with doors, ending in a long box which, open as desired, gives space to those who sit against it to spread out the legs and recline to sleep. It is supported by the springs, and has a four-wheeled tail wagon. From the French Dormeuse. Faetòn or Faitòn or Favetòn … … Faetòn is a type of wood that has two wheels light and far from the case, and the latter discovery, with stable fender and mobile bellows, is a kind of gala Gabriolè , so called for the note fable of the unfortunate Phaeton who is usually represented as the driver of the horses of the Sun in a gig similar in some way to this kind of wood. Salvini’s Aurora Sediadoro in its version of the Odyssey is also an Aurora in faetondorè. An English Faeton can be seen in the Corrier delle Dame of June 8, 1820. Today there is also another species of wood with a chest parted in two or more cassini, and sometimes also with snake, straight on the springs, and with a four-wheeled chariot. Faetonìn or Faitonin … .. wood similar to the previous one but smaller in size. Fiaccher… ..or Fiàcca ……… name of those freight carriages at fixed times, distinguished by numbers known to good governance (to the police), which being in different squares of the city ready for any request to leave in the moment. The Martello in his Treatise on Tragedy calls them Fiàccari. We had the name together with the custom of the French people who name these cars Fiacres because they originally settled in Paris at the church of San Fiacre, or because they wanted to make an antithesis with that carriage adorned with crystals that the Sicilians call Flacca. It is manifold as it is customary to use used carriages for this service, provided they are covered as needed and in four places. Fiaccherìsta or Fiaccarìsta or Fiaccarèe …… this is the name of the conductors of Fiacres. Furlòn… .. Furlone , a kind of closed carriage, almost similar to the Landò, but with this difference that has odd seats. We owe the name, if I’m not mistaken, to Spanish people who call Forlon or Furlon this kind of chariot whose name is now out of use by us. Gabriolè … ..  a kind of graceful chair that has a two-place cassino, folded down, with bellows, without doors or front sides, and held up on springs, and has a two-shaft and two-wheeled cart. From the French Cabriolet. Gabriolè… .. it is also said to sit in several places and covered with a stable bellows which takes the place of a snake and a box in the stagecoaches, traveling carriages and the like. Garì… gig with cash box. Garricch…. Calessino covered externally on the sides by a net of rattan cane, uncovered in two places, without doors or front sides, straight on the springs, with stable mudguard and with two-wheeled wagon. Chariot and shell have very lively and gentle shapes. It takes its name from the English Garick. Ghìcch… a kind of hunting gig almost similar to the Garicch , but less gentle and ornate. It is so called from the French Guigue or Guingue . D’un Ghicch said to Dumont-style; you can see the drawing in the courier of the Dame of 12 April, 1828. Landò … ..landò is a wood with a tailed wagon and four wheels, with a folded box, on the springs, four places, with doors and front sides , with equal seats on both sides, and with covered that can be divided as desired when the seats like to be out in the open. It is said that Landò is a French word; but I tend rather to believe it is an English or German word, taken from “Land” and from that lawyer which is said and written by many. Landolètt…. o Mezzlandò ; little Landò. Similar to the landò, but without front sides, in two places, and sometimes with a seat (sgabellin) for the front. Legn de caccia … … it is also said par excellence a particular kind of carriage which has the bottom box somewhat concave on the outside to have the pina turned to a need and straight on the springs, and has a four-wheeled tailed chariot. Legn de posta……. Mail chair; in the common language it is equivalent to any refuse carriage held by the post posts for the use of those who run the post office without having its own wood. Legnett… buggy; generic name of every quality of carriages and small buggies. Legn-scalfaa …… .. a kind of carriage that has a four-wheeled chariot without a tail or shafts, and a box established on five or more springs arranged in several directions; it has four mudguard wings on the sides and a front wing, it has two places, it has no doors, it has a stable snake base, and a snake to be lifted and placed. It seems to me that the English people call it Chip-fayton, that is, hollowed-out phaeton, because its cassino is hollowed out to facilitate the respective play of the springs and the vault. Mezza-caròccia …. Generic name of the woods with a drawbar wagon. Mùda …. Muta; it is said that the carriage is pulled by four or six horses changes to six, or even the horses themselves joined together to pull it. Nibbi……. In this way, every mongrel of gig is named as a joke, and especially the tylber or something similiar. Omnibus… . Species of carriage with folded down box with stable cover, straight on the springs, in many places, with door and front sides, and with straight tail and four-wheeled wagon. Above the deck of the chest it has various seats for other travelers. Padovanèll… .. sort of gig with uncovered cassino, without doors, similar in some way to a half eggshell, or to a half niche, with gentle shapes, in a single place, held up on the shafts and on two wheels. The French say it with an Italian voice Un Solo. Our name perhaps derives from the great use in which, however, in the plain of Padua there are so-called gigs that some also say Sediolitt although it is incorrect. Polonèsa…. Polish wood; a kind of carriage that has the case folded down and sometimes even channeled, with bellows, on the springs at two places, with a seat for coachmen and servants, without doors or front sides, with a single bottom ( fodrinna ) for each facade. It has a tail and four-wheeled chariot. Polonèssina ……… The aforementioned carriage of smaller dimensions. Rococò… .. carriage coming in great fashion since a year. It is a heifer ( bastardella ) with a four-wheeled wagon without a tail or shafts, whose shell rests only on springs, has very low doors with mudguards from the sides forming the tread instead of a step that almost touches the ground. It is somewhat similar to the first carriages that came into use four centuries ago under the name of carrette. Rompacòil …… .. English style wood with yoke; a kind of carriage with the rear sides of the C-shaped case, with two wheels, on springs and cones, with two places, with mobile bellows, with stable fender, with rudder resting on the back of horses and supported by a yoke (pump) of various shapes , without doors or front sides. The rudder takes the place of poles and tail. Sciarabàn ……. Calessino with round case, encased (fesada), uncovered or not at will, straight on the springs, two places, without doors or front sides, sometimes with seat for coachman, with four-wheeled tail wagon and steering wheel – from the French Char- a-bancs. Sciarabanèll… .. similar gig. Sciarabanin ……. Similar to the previous one but smaller in size; a small char-a-bancs. Sciaracotè ……. Wood that has a four-wheeled wagon with a straight tail, and an ordinary uncovered box supported by springing wooden poles. The box can be turned around in the blink of an eye as desired, depending on whether the many people sitting inside on a single seat which for the longest time enjoy enjoying the prospect from one side rather than the other. It is used in Switzerland especially for traveling in the mountains or on the shores of lakes. From the French Char a còtès . Sedia… gig; a kind of uncovered wood, which is coarse and massive and rests on two long poles which they brandish resting on the back of a horse. It has no branches, it has two wheels, and two places. Sedioeù ……. Calessino; similar to the chair, but only in one place. In some of these buggies there is a device in the buttocks by means of which it is possible to widen it somewhat by the two bands and thus give some place, even if cramped, to two people; and then such gigs are familiarly called: un cù e mezz. Sediolin…. Almost similar to the aforementioned, but increasingly smaller. Some also call Padovannéll with this name, mentioned earlier. Sgoràtta… .. sort of gig (chair) so called by two wings which are parallel to the upper edge of the two sides of the box. Sgoratta because aligero, from Sgorattà. It is similar to the chair, but lighter in every part. Staìbagher or Stirvàgen… .. a kind of carriage that has a fluted case, straight on the springs, quadrilong, with bellows, two places and with doors; it has a tailed and four-wheeled chariot. The bottom case ends in a large wooden safety wardrobe covered in leather, which rises from the back where the servants are in the other woods. From the German Steuerwagen (rudder carriage) or Steuerwagen (Styrian carriage) or Stierwagen (bull carriage). Stanòpp ……. Lightweight wood, high chest, without cover, and with stable mudguard. From English Stanhope, a name of a gentleman for whom it was invented. Stracàn …… .. species of wood I don’t know if it is so called by Astrakhan because it is a Russian-style wood, or it is really called in English from the name of the famous admiral Strachan. Svìmer…. Svimmero ; from the German Schwimmer float, or from the English Svimer. Tilber …… tilburi; a kind of gig with a shell often uncovered, square in two places, without doors or front sides, with a stable front mudguard, and held upright on the springs. It has a chariot with two wheels and with istanges made in open ellipse or, so to speak, in the form of a long zither. In my opinion, the voice has English origin, Tylburn. Timonèlla ……. Timonella (Tuscan) any wood that has small dimensions, rather than carrying its nature, and have a rudder for it and be drawn by two horses, it carries in that place a timonella, or is traversed with istanghette drawn by a single horse. This kind of wood we also say familiarly: Mezza caroccia. Vagòn … a kind of big chariot whose fashion came to us last year along with the name ( Waggon, big cart) of England. It is used only for railroads, and is a big cart which can carry many people which has a quadrilong box, flat and straight on the springs, with several doors and behinds divided inside by several walls; it has a six or eight-wheeled chariot. Some of them have covered seats upstairs like Omnibuses . Velozifer …… multi-place big cart turning the whole box which is mostly square, with a stable and massive cover, and straight on the springs: it has a wooden tailed wagon with four wheels. Most of the time it has on the back an addition of cassino to two or more buttocks, with windows and doors which we say Baltreschin. Viccìura …… or Vittùra, the same as Legn a la Vitura. Visavi …… a kind of narrow sedan (caroccia de quatter ), with only two places, one opposite the other. It is named after the French Vis a Vis (face to face). Vòrst or Vùrst … … a kind of gig that has a round case, sitting at two places in the rear end from which a long seat on which some sit astride, for the most part without doors, even if sometimes they are added to place and remove , with a leather apron, mostly with bellows, on the springs, and with a four-wheeled tail chariot. It has two large side wings that protect it from the mud that the rear wheels would tip over on it. The French also call it Vource or Wurst from the German Wurst. Some also know other kinds of cars, as it would be. Let’s say the Droschi, Russian-style carriage and Russian name (Droschki), the Tricycle or the Delta, wood with three wheels in fashion in Paris and so called with a bastardum of doctrinal names; the Visch, light carriage with a very raised cassino and English name Wisky, and so on and so forth; but I do not make specific mention about them, in order not to be, like the aforementioned, passed into the mouths of all my compatriots.

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